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Query String

Queries are comprised of parameters, commands, and tokens, and use the following standard URL format: key=value&anotherKey=otherValue. All queries must be properly URL encoded using UTF-8 character encoding. Query parameter values and command argument values contain special characters that will need to be escaped before URL encoding. Some parameters, such as the text query parameter, accept Lucene-specific query syntax that needs to be escaped as well.
 
Characters may be escaped with the backslash ('\') character. For all parameter values and command arguments except q and fq, the characters that must be escaped include: ,:()${}. For parameters and arguments that hold Lucene query syntax, characters that may need to be escaped include: +-&|!(){}[]^"~?:\. Lucene special characters only need to be escaped if their special meaning was not intended. If Lucene escaping and regular escaping are both needed, as in the setTextQuery() command, the Lucene escaping must be performed before regular escaping.
 
Example - Constructing a query URL 
 
Query for:
 
  Probability models of recidivism: an exploration
 
Filter by:
 
  Author: Linster, Richard L
 
Text Query:
 
  Probability models of recidivism\: an exploration
 
  Note that ':' is escaped in a Lucene query, but no other escaping is needed for the q parameter
 
Text Filter:
 
  Author:(Linster, Richard L)
 
Add Text Filter Command After Escaping:
 
  addTextFilter(Author\:\(Linster\, Richard L\))
 
  Note that ':', ',', '(' and ')' are escaped
 
URL query string before encoding:
 
  q=Probability models of recidivism\: an exploration&cmd=addTextFilter(Author\:\(Linster\, Richard L\))
 
URL query string encoded:
 
  q=Probability+models+of+recidivism%5C%3A+an+exploration&cmd=addTextFilter%28Author%5C%3A%5C%28Linster%5C%2C+Richard+L%5C%29%29
 
 

For more specific information on building the URL query string, see: Parameters, Commands and Tokens.

 

Example

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      ],
      "Notes":[
        "Microfiche. Ann Arbor, Mich. : University Microfilms International, 1988. 2 microfiches ; 11 x 15 cm. (Crime and juvenile delinquency ; C&JD 1199)",
        "1988",
        "Reproduction of original in the Rutgers University Library.",
        "\"Supported in part by NIJ Grant #84-IJ-CX-K046 to University of Maryland.\""
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      "AbstractList":[
        "This article presents the results of an analysis of the risk of arrest for a violent crime for a cohort of youthful parolees. The sample consists of 1,949 individuals paroled by the California Youth Authority between July 1, 1981, and June 30, 1982. Results of a multivariate competing hazards analysis suggest that prior criminal history and socioeconomic variables are powerful predictors of both the timing and the charge of first arrest following parole. In comparison to results from a model predicting rearrest for any crime, rearrest for violence is significantly influenced by prior arrests for violence and several family pathology variables, including evidence of family violence and parental criminality. Prior gang involvement and heavy use of alcohol and illicit drugs have little predictive ability for violent recidivism among our sample. The results indicate that prediction of rearrest for violence among a group of serious youthful offenders may be practical if criminal history, institutional behavior, and personal background characteristics are all taken into account."
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        "LINSTER, RICHARD L",
        "VISHER, CHRISTY A"
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        {
          "volume":"6",
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          }
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          "volume":"29",
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          "year":"1989",
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          "article-title":"“Markov Chain Analysis and Specialization in Criminal Careers.”",
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          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Stander, J."
          },
          "contributor":{
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          },
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            "fullname":"G. Hill"
          },
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            "fullname":"P.M.E. Altham"
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        },
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          "volume":"10",
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          "year":"1994",
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            "fullname":"Lattimore, P. K."
          },
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"C. A. Visher"
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          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"R. L. Linster"
          }
        },
        {
          "volume":"30",
          "start-page":"501",
          "year":"1992b",
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          "article-title":"“The Onset and Persistence of Offending.”",
          "publication-title":"Criminology",
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            "fullname":"Nagin, D. S."
          },
          "contributor":{
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          }
        },
        {
          "volume":"267",
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          "year":"1992",
          "end-page":"3072",
          "article-title":"“Let's Be Clear: Violence Is a Public Health Problem.”",
          "publication-title":"Journal of the American Medical Association",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Rosenberg, M. L."
          },
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"P. W. O'Carroll"
          },
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"K. E. Powell"
          }
        },
        {
          "volume":"41",
          "start-page":"1",
          "issue":"May 29",
          "year":"1992",
          "end-page":"34",
          "article-title":"“Homicide Surveillance, 1979-1988.”",
          "publication-title":"Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Centers for Disease Control"
          }
        },
        {
          "volume":"29",
          "start-page":"329",
          "issue":"3",
          "year":"1991",
          "end-page":"366",
          "article-title":"“Predicting the Recidivism of Serious Youthful Offenders Using Survival Models.”",
          "publication-title":"Criminology",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Visher, C. A."
          },
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"P. K. Lattimore"
          },
          "contributor":{
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          }
        },
        {
          "volume":"27",
          "start-page":"251",
          "year":"1989",
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          "article-title":"“Child Abuse, Neglect, and Violent Criminal Behavior.”",
          "publication-title":"Criminology",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Widom, C. S."
          }
        },
        {
          "volume":"20",
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          "article-title":"“Stability of Aggression Over Time and Generations.”",
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            "fullname":"L. D. Eron"
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            "fullname":"M. M. Lefkowitz"
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          }
        },
        {
          "volume":"24",
          "start-page":"439",
          "year":"1986",
          "end-page":"472",
          "article-title":"“Violent Delinquents and Urban Youth.”",
          "publication-title":"Criminology",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Fagan, J."
          },
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"E. Piper"
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          }
        },
        {
          "volume":"7",
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          "year":"1991",
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          },
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          }
        },
        {
          "volume":"4",
          "start-page":"79",
          "year":"1989",
          "end-page":"100",
          "article-title":"“Early Predictors of Adolescent Aggression and Adult Violence.”",
          "publication-title":"Violence and Victims",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Farrington, D. P."
          }
        },
        {
          "volume":"4",
          "start-page":"363",
          "year":"1988",
          "end-page":"381",
          "article-title":"“Social Control Theory: The Salience of Components by Age, Gender, and Type of Crime.”",
          "publication-title":"Journal of Quantitative Criminology",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Friedman, J."
          },
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"D. P. Rosenbaum"
          }
        },
        {
          "volume":"1",
          "start-page":"319",
          "year":"1985",
          "end-page":"344",
          "article-title":"“Violent Recidivism and Chronicity in the 1958 Philadelphia Cohort.”",
          "publication-title":"Journal of Quantitative Criminology",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Piper, E."
          }
        },
        {
          "volume":"1",
          "start-page":"472",
          "year":"1986",
          "end-page":"514",
          "article-title":"“Self-Reported Violent Offending: A Descriptive Analysis of Juvenile Violent Offenders and Their Offending Careers.”",
          "publication-title":"Journal of Interpersonal Violence",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Elliott, D. E."
          },
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"D. Huizinga"
          },
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"B. Morse"
          }
        },
        {
          "volume":"94",
          "start-page":"68",
          "year":"1983",
          "end-page":"99",
          "article-title":"“Early Predictors of Male Delinquency: A Review.”",
          "publication-title":"Psychological Bulletin",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Loeber, R."
          },
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"T. Dishion"
          }
        },
        {
          "volume":"30",
          "start-page":"235",
          "year":"1992a",
          "end-page":"250",
          "article-title":"“The Stability of Criminal Potential From Childhood to Adulthood.”",
          "publication-title":"Criminology",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Nagin, D. S."
          },
          "contributor":{
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        ".... In comparison to results from a <h>model</h> predicting rearrest for any crime, rearrest for violence is significantly influenced by prior arrests for violence and several family pathology variables...",
        "... are powerful predictors of both the timing and the charge of first arrest following parole. In comparison to results fiom a <h>model</h> predicting rearrestforany crime..."
      ],
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        "Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency"
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      "References":[
        "Rosenberg, M. L., P. W. O'Carroll, K. E. Powell 1992; 267",
        "Chung, C. F., P. Schmidt, A. D. Witte 1991; 7",
        "Widom, C. S. 1989; 27",
        "Loeber, R., T. Dishion 1983; 94",
        "Huesmann, L. R., L. D. Eron, M. M. Lefkowitz, L. O. Walder 1984; 20",
        "Centers for Disease Control 1992; 41",
        "Nagin, D. S., D. P. Farrington 1992a; 30",
        "Visher, C. A., P. K. Lattimore, R. L. Linster 1991; 29",
        "Elliott, D. E., D. Huizinga, B. Morse 1986; 1",
        "Piper, E. 1985; 1",
        "Lattimore, P. K., C. A. Visher, R. L. Linster 1994; 10",
        "Farrington, D. P. 1989; 4",
        "Nagin, D. S., D. P. Farrington 1992b; 30",
        "Friedman, J., D. P. Rosenbaum 1988; 4",
        "Visher, C. A., R. L. Linster 1990; 6",
        "Stander, J., D. P. Farrington, G. Hill, P.M.E. Altham 1989; 29",
        "Fagan, J., E. Piper, M. Moore 1986; 24"
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      "Abstract":[
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        "Mortality data were gathered from California Vital Statistics for more than 4,000 youth paroled by the California Youth Authority during the 1980s. Exposure periods (time at risk of death), were about 11 years and 6 years for the two samples. Known deaths for two cohorts totaled 181 for the 3,995 male offenders in the two samples, including 109 for the 1,998 males in the 1981-1982 sample and 72 for the 1,997 males in the 1986-1987 sample. Homicide was the prevailing cause for both samples. Of particular note is the fact that the numbers of deaths due to causes other than homicide are roughly proportional to the length of the exposure periods for the two samples while the numbers of homicides are roughly equal despite the very different lengths of time at risk. A higher probability of death by murder was observed for Black youth, those from Los Angeles, those with a history of gang involvement and institutional violence, and those with a history of drug arrests.",
        "  Mortality data gathered from California Vital Statistics for more than 4,000 youth paroled by the California Youth Authority during the 1980s is presented. Homicide was the prevailing cause of death."
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          "article-title":"“Predicting the Recidivism of Serious Youthful Offenders Using Survival Models.”",
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          "contributor":{
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          "volume":"46",
          "start-page":"461",
          "year":"1981",
          "end-page":"474",
          "article-title":"“Variations in Sex-Race-Age-Specific Rates of Offending.”",
          "publication-title":"American Sociological Review",
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            "fullname":"Hindelang, M."
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