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Remove Facet Value Group Filter Command

Syntax

The remove facet value group filter command uses the following syntax:

removeFacetValueGroupFilter(<id>[, <value>])

The default value for value is all values, if unspecified.

Function

The remove facet value group filter command removes the value specified if a value is present. If no value is present and only an ID is given, then the entire facet value group filter will be removed. After removing specified value or group filter, this command calls clearAllPaging().

Example - Using the remove facet value group filter command

The following remove facet value group filter command removes the entire facet value group filter 1, removes the north america value from facet value group filter 2, and resets paging on the facet fields and page number:

s.pn=3&s.ff=ContentType,or,2,15&s.ff=SubjectTerms,and,2,15&s.fvgf:1=ContentType,or,Book,Journal
&s.fvgf:2=SubjectTerms,or,north+america,u.s
&s.cmd=removeFacetValueGroupFilter(1)+removeFacetValueGroupFilter(2,north+america)

Example response

s.pn=3&s.ff=ContentType,or,2,15&s.ff=SubjectTerms,and,2,15&s.fvgf:1=ContentType,or,Book,Journal&s.fvgf:2=SubjectTerms,or,north+america,u.s&s.cmd=removeFacetValueGroupFilter(1)+removeFacetValueGroupFilter(2,north+america)

{
  "version":"2.0.0",
  "sessionId":"test-application-74703",
  "elapsedQueryTime":213,
  "queryTime":180,
  "totalRequestTime":443,
  "pageCount":28560,
  "recordCount":285598,
  "query":{
    "queryString":"s.fvgf%3A2=SubjectTerms%2Cor%2Cu.s&s.secure=f&s.ff=SubjectTerms%2Cand%2C1%2C15",
    "pageNumber":1,
    "pageSize":10,
    "textQueries":[
      
    ],
    "searchTerms":[
      
    ],
    "textFilters":[
      
    ],
    "rangeFilters":[
      
    ],
    "facetValueFilters":[
      
    ],
    "inclusiveFacetValueFilters":[
      
    ],
    "facetValueGroupFilters":[
      {
        "tag":"2",
        "fieldName":"SubjectTerms",
        "combineMode":"or",
        "removeCommand":"removeFacetValueGroupFilter(2)",
        "values":[
          {
            "value":"u.s",
            "removeCommand":"removeFacetValueGroupFilter(2,u.s)"
          }
        ]
      }
    ],
    "facetFields":[
      {
        "fieldName":"SubjectTerms",
        "combineMode":"and",
        "pageNumber":1,
        "pageSize":15,
        "removeCommand":"removeFacetField(SubjectTerms)"
      }
    ],
    "rangeFacetFields":[
      
    ],
    "sort":[
      
    ]
  },
  "facetFields":[
    {
      "fieldName":"SubjectTerms_mfacet",
      "displayName":"SubjectTerms",
      "combineMode":"and",
      "pageNumber":1,
      "pageSize":15,
      "hasLimitingValue":true,
      "hasAppliedValue":true,
      "removeCommand":"removeFacetField(SubjectTerms)",
      "listValuesCommand":"listFacetValues(SubjectTerms,and)",
      "removeValueFiltersCommand":"removeFacetValueFilter(SubjectTerms)",
      "counts":[
        {
          "value":"u.s",
          "count":285598,
          "isApplied":true,
          "isNegated":false,
          "isFurtherLimiting":false,
          "removeCommand":"removeFacetValueGroupFilter(2,u.s)",
          "negateCommand":"negateFacetValueFilter(SubjectTerms,u.s)"
        },
        {
          "value":"northern america",
          "count":280646,
          "isApplied":false,
          "isNegated":false,
          "isFurtherLimiting":true,
          "applyCommand":"addFacetValueFilters(SubjectTerms,northern america)",
          "applyNegatedCommand":"addFacetValueFilters(SubjectTerms,northern america:t)"
        },
        {
          "value":"economics",
          "count":80650,
          "isApplied":false,
          "isNegated":false,
          "isFurtherLimiting":true,
          "applyCommand":"addFacetValueFilters(SubjectTerms,economics)",
          "applyNegatedCommand":"addFacetValueFilters(SubjectTerms,economics:t)"
        },
        {
          "value":"studies",
          "count":72741,
          "isApplied":false,
          "isNegated":false,
          "isFurtherLimiting":true,
          "applyCommand":"addFacetValueFilters(SubjectTerms,studies)",
          "applyNegatedCommand":"addFacetValueFilters(SubjectTerms,studies:t)"
        },
        {
          "value":"u.s.a",
          "count":28756,
          "isApplied":false,
          "isNegated":false,
          "isFurtherLimiting":true,
          "applyCommand":"addFacetValueFilters(SubjectTerms,u.s.a)",
          "applyNegatedCommand":"addFacetValueFilters(SubjectTerms,u.s.a:t)"
        },
        {
          "value":"analysis",
          "count":28755,
          "isApplied":false,
          "isNegated":false,
          "isFurtherLimiting":true,
          "applyCommand":"addFacetValueFilters(SubjectTerms,analysis)",
          "applyNegatedCommand":"addFacetValueFilters(SubjectTerms,analysis:t)"
        },
        {
          "value":"europe",
          "count":26899,
          "isApplied":false,
          "isNegated":false,
          "isFurtherLimiting":true,
          "applyCommand":"addFacetValueFilters(SubjectTerms,europe)",
          "applyNegatedCommand":"addFacetValueFilters(SubjectTerms,europe:t)"
        },
        {
          "value":"article",
          "count":25311,
          "isApplied":false,
          "isNegated":false,
          "isFurtherLimiting":true,
          "applyCommand":"addFacetValueFilters(SubjectTerms,article)",
          "applyNegatedCommand":"addFacetValueFilters(SubjectTerms,article:t)"
        },
        {
          "value":"united states",
          "count":23855,
          "isApplied":false,
          "isNegated":false,
          "isFurtherLimiting":true,
          "applyCommand":"addFacetValueFilters(SubjectTerms,united states)",
          "applyNegatedCommand":"addFacetValueFilters(SubjectTerms,united states:t)"
        },
        {
          "value":"united states--us",
          "count":23247,
          "isApplied":false,
          "isNegated":false,
          "isFurtherLimiting":true,
          "applyCommand":"addFacetValueFilters(SubjectTerms,united states--us)",
          "applyNegatedCommand":"addFacetValueFilters(SubjectTerms,united states--us:t)"
        },
        {
          "value":"research",
          "count":19194,
          "isApplied":false,
          "isNegated":false,
          "isFurtherLimiting":true,
          "applyCommand":"addFacetValueFilters(SubjectTerms,research)",
          "applyNegatedCommand":"addFacetValueFilters(SubjectTerms,research:t)"
        },
        {
          "value":"economic models",
          "count":18713,
          "isApplied":false,
          "isNegated":false,
          "isFurtherLimiting":true,
          "applyCommand":"addFacetValueFilters(SubjectTerms,economic models)",
          "applyNegatedCommand":"addFacetValueFilters(SubjectTerms,economic models:t)"
        },
        {
          "value":"business, finance",
          "count":17725,
          "isApplied":false,
          "isNegated":false,
          "isFurtherLimiting":true,
          "applyCommand":"addFacetValueFilters(SubjectTerms,business\\, finance)",
          "applyNegatedCommand":"addFacetValueFilters(SubjectTerms,business\\, finance:t)"
        },
        {
          "value":"models",
          "count":16016,
          "isApplied":false,
          "isNegated":false,
          "isFurtherLimiting":true,
          "applyCommand":"addFacetValueFilters(SubjectTerms,models)",
          "applyNegatedCommand":"addFacetValueFilters(SubjectTerms,models:t)"
        },
        {
          "value":"economic theory",
          "count":15723,
          "isApplied":false,
          "isNegated":false,
          "isFurtherLimiting":true,
          "applyCommand":"addFacetValueFilters(SubjectTerms,economic theory)",
          "applyNegatedCommand":"addFacetValueFilters(SubjectTerms,economic theory:t)"
        }
      ]
    }
  ],
  "rangeFacetFields":[
    
  ],
  "didYouMeanSuggestions":[
    
  ],
  "recommendationLists":{
    
  },
  "documents":[
    {
      "hasFullText":true,
      "isFullTextHit":false,
      "isPrint":false,
      "inHoldings":true,
      "openUrl":"ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&ctx_enc=info%3Aofi%2Fenc%3AUTF-8&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fsummon.serialssolutions.com&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Returns+to+scale+at+large+banks+in+the+US%3A+A+random+coefficient+stochastic+frontier+approach&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Banking+%26+Finance&rft.au=Feng%2C+Guohua&rft.au=Zhang%2C+Xiaohui&rft.date=2014-02-01&rft.issn=0378-4266&rft.eissn=1872-6372&rft.volume=39&rft.spage=135&rft.epage=145&rft_id=info:doi/10.1016%2Fj.jbankfin.2013.10.012&rft.externalDBID=n%2Fa&rft.externalDocID=10_1016_j_jbankfin_2013_10_012",
      "link":"http://demo.summon.serialssolutions.com/2.0.0/link/0/eLvHCXMwlV1LT8MwDLYmDogL70dhk_IHuvWVruU2GBMXLoyJC1KVJilssHZau_-P3cc20Dgg9dJGitLYyffZcWyAC-RIhbl1_moiZS2dAeMBH74GTyjhFlh_nNmXsVezWKSfyZTyk9pul6KvykLCrsMpams0vNtstkFdARmNIQKbrUvAu7v5gT-7d-ESWkZHsGou6LxnXaplRZQMNYFcBktdIU627C3yX43rTI6oY6hs-Gz-sbKTa4t59wCP4bDmomxQKc8JtHR6CvtNKPwZvD1rBKQ0Z0XGcpSlZqJgXxQ6zqjHnE1ThuNhk_EtGzAEPZXNmcx0mZUCwYwhsZQfgjJBs4QSJSAEsyaJ-TlMRg8v949mXY3BlI7Hyca0XW6JxPb9uK-krQIZ-iHivRM7lqMt7Sgv8UJLhDzxRCgS7asY6aKIA-2hEeNeAZMuV4klJIGip5WMrX6ig1BqzqWwtWNArxFOtKiybURNGNosamYrotmi7zhbBlySDCNajsVSyIj8WG4YcM-ATiPWSMTkN5JFHiHBwS0IjSzLgPa6vV632EyVmPu-HzjX_x7KDRzgm1eFdLdhr1iudAf2lJ5n32yG5p4",
      "ExternalDocumentID":[
        "3171040561",
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        "10_1016_j_jbankfin_2013_10_012"
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      "DBID":[
        "8BH",
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      "IngestDate":[
        "Fri Oct 20 08:28:55 EDT 2017",
        "Sat Oct 28 06:43:10 EDT 2017",
        "Sat Oct 28 18:23:31 EDT 2017",
        "Fri Oct 20 01:40:09 EDT 2017"
      ],
      "PublicationDate_xml":[
        {
          "month":"02",
          "year":"2014",
          "text":"20140201",
          "day":"01"
        }
      ],
      "Score":[
        "0.01"
      ],
      "DatabaseTitleList":[
        "",
        "EconLit"
      ],
      "PublicationPlace":[
        "Amsterdam"
      ],
      "URI":[
        "https://search.proquest.com/docview/1473576682"
      ],
      "PublicationPlace_xml":[
        {
          "name":"Amsterdam"
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      "Publisher_xml":[
        {
          "name":"Elsevier B.V"
        },
        {
          "name":"Elsevier Sequoia S.A"
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      "ID":[
        "FETCH-LOGICAL-c2450-611350af166b7dc1d8c9698182b202e0e2d4f490a95f4a9afe6db565ab8e48263"
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      "GeographicLocations":[
        "United States--US"
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      "PQPubID":[
        "23466"
      ],
      "DOI":[
        "10.1016/j.jbankfin.2013.10.012"
      ],
      "Publisher":[
        "Elsevier B.V",
        "Elsevier Sequoia S.A"
      ],
      "AbstractList":[
        "  This paper investigates the returns to scale of large banks in the US over the period 1997-2010. This investigation is performed by estimating a random coefficient stochastic distance frontier model in the spirit of Tsionas (2002) and Greene (2005, 2008). The primary advantage of this model is that its coefficients can vary across banks, thereby allowing for unobserved technology heterogeneity among large banks in the US We find that failure to consider unobserved technology heterogeneity results in a misleading ranking of banks and mismeasured returns to scale. Our results show that the majority of large banks in the US exhibit constant returns to scale. In addition, our results suggest that banks of the same size can have different levels of returns to scale and there is no clear pattern among large banks in the US concerning the relationship between asset size and returns to scale, due to the presence of technology heterogeneity. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]",
        "This paper investigates the returns to scale of large banks in the US over the period 1997-2010. This investigation is performed by estimating a random coefficient stochastic distance frontier model in the spirit of Tsionas (2002) and Greene (2005, 2008). The primary advantage of this model is that its coefficients can vary across banks, thereby allowing for unobserved technology heterogeneity among large banks in the US. We find that failure to consider unobserved technology heterogeneity results in a misleading ranking of banks and mismeasured returns to scale. Our results show that the majority of large banks in the US exhibit constant returns to scale. In addition, our results suggest that banks of the same size can have different levels of returns to scale and there is no clear pattern among large banks in the US concerning the relationship between asset size and returns to scale, due to the presence of technology heterogeneity."
      ],
      "Language":[
        "English"
      ],
      "EISSN":[
        "1872-6372"
      ],
      "Author":[
        "Zhang, Xiaohui",
        "Feng, Guohua"
      ],
      "ISSN":[
        "0378-4266"
      ],
      "PublicationCentury":[
        "2000"
      ],
      "IsScholarly":[
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      ],
      "PublicationDecade":[
        "2010"
      ],
      "Snippet":[
        "This paper investigates the returns to scale of large banks in the US over the period 1997-2010. This investigation is performed by estimating a random...",
        "  This paper investigates the returns to scale of large banks in the US over the period 1997-2010. This investigation is performed by estimating a random..."
      ],
      "References_xml":[
        {
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          "start-page":"577",
          "issue":"2",
          "year":"2005",
          "ident":"10.1016/j.jbankfin.2013.10.012_b0005",
          "article-title":"The diffusion of financial innovations: an examination of the adoption of small business credit scoring by large banking organisations",
          "publication-title":"J. Bus.",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Akhavein"
          }
        },
        {
          "volume":"22",
          "start-page":"1701",
          "year":"1994",
          "ident":"10.1016/j.jbankfin.2013.10.012_b0155",
          "article-title":"Markov chains for exploring posterior distributions (with discussion)",
          "publication-title":"Ann. Stat.",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Tierney"
          }
        },
        {
          "year":"1970",
          "ident":"10.1016/j.jbankfin.2013.10.012_b0145",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Shephard"
          }
        },
        {
          "volume":"126",
          "start-page":"269",
          "year":"2005",
          "ident":"10.1016/j.jbankfin.2013.10.012_b0090",
          "article-title":"Reconsidering heterogeneity in panel data estimators of the stochastic frontier model",
          "publication-title":"J. Econ.",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Greene"
          }
        },
        {
          "year":"2008",
          "ident":"10.1016/j.jbankfin.2013.10.012_b0095",
          "article-title":"The econometric approach to efficiency analysis",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Greene"
          }
        },
        {
          "volume":"39",
          "start-page":"227",
          "year":"2004",
          "ident":"10.1016/j.jbankfin.2013.10.012_b0040",
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          "publication-title":"J. Financ. Quant. Anal.",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Coles"
          }
        },
        {
          "volume":"34",
          "start-page":"127",
          "year":"2010",
          "ident":"10.1016/j.jbankfin.2013.10.012_b0075",
          "article-title":"Efficiency, technical change, and returns to scale in large US banks: panel data evidence from an output distance function satisfying theoretical regularity",
          "publication-title":"J. Bank. Finance",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Feng"
          }
        },
        {
          "volume":"65",
          "start-page":"361",
          "year":"1998",
          "ident":"10.1016/j.jbankfin.2013.10.012_b0105",
          "article-title":"Stochastic volatility: likelihood inference and comparison with ARCH models",
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          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Kim"
          }
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          "volume":"38",
          "start-page":"887",
          "year":"1983",
          "ident":"10.1016/j.jbankfin.2013.10.012_b0115",
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          "publication-title":"J. Finance",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Murray"
          }
        },
        {
          "year":"2003",
          "ident":"10.1016/j.jbankfin.2013.10.012_b0110",
          "article-title":"Bayesian analysis of stochastic frontier models",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Koop"
          }
        },
        {
          "volume":"75",
          "start-page":"374",
          "year":"1993",
          "ident":"10.1016/j.jbankfin.2013.10.012_b0065",
          "article-title":"Derivation of shadow prices for undesirable outputs: a distance function approach",
          "publication-title":"Rev. Econ. Stat.",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Färe"
          }
        },
        {
          "volume":"6",
          "start-page":"284",
          "issue":"3",
          "year":"1973",
          "ident":"10.1016/j.jbankfin.2013.10.012_b0050",
          "article-title":"Functional forms for profit and transformation functions",
          "publication-title":"J. Econ. Theory",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Diewert"
          }
        },
        {
          "year":"1994",
          "ident":"10.1016/j.jbankfin.2013.10.012_b0060",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Färe"
          }
        },
        {
          "volume":"26",
          "start-page":"479",
          "issue":"3",
          "year":"1995",
          "ident":"10.1016/j.jbankfin.2013.10.012_b0135",
          "article-title":"Adoption of technologies with network effects: an empirical examination of the adoption of automated teller machines",
          "publication-title":"Rand J. Econ.",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Saloner"
          }
        },
        {
          "volume":"32",
          "start-page":"1251",
          "year":"1977",
          "ident":"10.1016/j.jbankfin.2013.10.012_b0140",
          "article-title":"Inputs, outputs, and a theory of production and cost at depository financial institutions",
          "publication-title":"J. Finance",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Sealey"
          }
        },
        {
          "volume":"126",
          "start-page":"493",
          "year":"2005",
          "ident":"10.1016/j.jbankfin.2013.10.012_b0120",
          "article-title":"A Bayesian approach to imposing curvature on distance functions",
          "publication-title":"J. Econ.",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"O’Donnell"
          }
        },
        {
          "volume":"79",
          "start-page":"169",
          "year":"1997",
          "ident":"10.1016/j.jbankfin.2013.10.012_b0085",
          "article-title":"On the use of panel data in stochastic frontier models with improper priors",
          "publication-title":"J. Econ.",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Fernandez"
          }
        },
        {
          "volume":"64",
          "start-page":"583",
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          "ident":"10.1016/j.jbankfin.2013.10.012_b0150",
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      "Abstract":[
        "This paper investigates the returns to scale of large banks in the US over the period 1997-2010. This investigation is performed by estimating a random coefficient stochastic distance frontier model in the spirit of Tsionas (2002) and Greene (2005, 2008). The primary advantage of this model is that its coefficients can vary across banks, thereby allowing for unobserved technology heterogeneity among large banks in the US. We find that failure to consider unobserved technology heterogeneity results in a misleading ranking of banks and mismeasured returns to scale. Our results show that the majority of large banks in the US exhibit constant returns to scale. In addition, our results suggest that banks of the same size can have different levels of returns to scale and there is no clear pattern among large banks in the US concerning the relationship between asset size and returns to scale, due to the presence of technology heterogeneity."
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      "Title":[
        "Returns to Scale at Large Banks in the US: A Random Coefficient Stochastic Frontier Approach"
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        "This paper explores the macroeconomic consequences of preferences displaying a subsistence point. It departs from the existing related literature by assuming that subsistence points are specific to each variety of goods rather than to the composite consumption good. We show that this simple feature makes the price elasticity of demand for individual goods procyclical. As a result, markups behave countercyclically in equilibrium. This implication is in line with the available empirical evidence.",
        "  This paper explores the macroeconomic consequences of preferences displaying a subsistence point. It departs from the existing related literature by assuming that subsistence points are specific to each variety of goods rather than to the composite consumption good. We show that this simple feature makes the price elasticity of demand for individual goods procyclical. As a result, markups behave countercyclically in equilibrium. This implication is in line with the available empirical evidence. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]"
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        "URIBE, MARTÍN",
        "SCHMITT-GROHÉ, STEPHANIE"
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        "  This paper explores the macroeconomic consequences of preferences displaying a subsistence point. It departs from the existing related literature by assuming..."
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      "AbstractList":[
        "This study empirically investigates traffic congestion effects on agglomeration through the lens of firm location decisions. A discrete choice model is applied to examine new establishments' location choices within the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Employment centers are defined as the choice set to explore the nature and role of intraurban agglomerations. The results show that metro-wide congestion negatively affects the location choices of firms in the high-order office-related activities, while local congestion have positive impacts on those firms' location decisions. In contrast, firms in production-related activities are positively influenced by regional congestion but are negatively affected by local congestion levels.",
        "This study empirically investigates traffic congestion effects on agglomeration through the lens of firm location decisions. A discrete choice model is applied to examine new establishments’ location choices within the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Employment centers are defined as the choice set to explore the nature and role of intraurban agglomerations. The results show that metro‐wide congestion negatively affects the location choices of firms in the high‐order office‐related activities, while local congestion have positive impacts on those firms’ location decisions. In contrast, firms in production‐related activities are positively influenced by regional congestion but are negatively affected by local congestion levels.",
        "  This study empirically investigates traffic congestion effects on agglomeration through the lens of firm location decisions. A discrete choice model is applied to examine new establishments' location choices within the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Employment centers are defined as the choice set to explore the nature and role of intraurban agglomerations. The results show that metro-wide congestion negatively affects the location choices of firms in the high-order office-related activities, while local congestion have positive impacts on those firms' location decisions. In contrast, firms in production-related activities are positively influenced by regional congestion but are negatively affected by local congestion levels. [web URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jors.12267/full]",
        "This study empirically investigates traffic congestion effects on agglomeration through the lens of firm location decisions. A discrete choice model is applied to examine new establishments' location choices within the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Employment centers are defined as the choice set to explore the nature and role of intraurban agglomerations. The results show that metro-wide congestion negatively affects the location choices of firms in the high-order office-related activities, while local congestion have positive impacts on those firms' location decisions. In contrast, firms in production-related activities are positively influenced by regional congestion but are negatively affected by local congestion levels."
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      "Snippet":[
        "This study empirically investigates traffic congestion effects on agglomeration through the lens of firm location decisions. A discrete choice model is applied...",
        "  This study empirically investigates traffic congestion effects on agglomeration through the lens of firm location decisions. A discrete choice model is..."
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        "Journal of Regional Science"
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      "SubjectTerms":[
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        "Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis (D22)",
        "Firm Location",
        "Transportation: Demand, Supply, and Congestion, Travel Time, Safety and Accidents, Transportation Noise (R41)",
        "U.S",
        "Regional",
        "Other Spatial Production and Pricing Analysis (R32)",
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        "Traffic congestion",
        "Analysis",
        "Location of industry",
        "Impact analysis",
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        "Employment",
        "Metropolitan areas",
        "Agglomeration"
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      "Discipline":[
        "Social Sciences (General)",
        "Sociology & Social History"
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        "2005; 4",
        "2007",
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        "1991a; 99",
        "2011; 49",
        "1979; 43",
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        "This study empirically investigates traffic congestion effects on agglomeration through the lens of firm location decisions. A discrete choice model is applied to examine new establishments’ location choices within the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Employment centers are defined as the choice set to explore the nature and role of intraurban agglomerations. The results show that metro‐wide congestion negatively affects the location choices of firms in the high‐order office‐related activities, while local congestion have positive impacts on those firms’ location decisions. In contrast, firms in production‐related activities are positively influenced by regional congestion but are negatively affected by local congestion levels."
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        "The author is grateful to Professors Genevieve Giuliano, Christian Redfearn, Marlon Boarnet, and James Moore for their valuable advice and feedbacks on earlier drafts of this paper. The author would also like to thank the editor, Professor Edward Coulson, and two anonymous referees for their helpful comments. Financial support for this research was provided by METRANS Center for Transportation, University of Southern California.",
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