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Did You Mean Parameter

Syntax

The did you mean parameter uses the following syntax:

s.dym-<boolean>

A query string may contain only one s.dym parameter. The default value for this parameter is true. If the page number is one, all facet field page numbers are one and no filters are applied. Otherwise, this parameter is fixed to false. This parameter cannot be used to override the default if the page number is not one, a facet field page number is not one or there are any filters applied.

Function

The did you mean parameter toggles Did You Mean suggestions on and off. Can be used to override the default of true when on page one with no filters applied.

Example - Using the dym parameter

This query string causes dym info to be returned with the results:
 
  s.q=govrnment&s.dym=true

Example response

s.q=govrnment&s.dym=true

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        "In several parts of the world, countries are undergoing economic, social, and political transitions, enhanced and accelerated by the forces of globalization. These transition economies can serve as laboratories for understanding the innovation process. This volume features original theoretical and empirical research. It offers the first comprehensive view of innovation system development in the context of small catching-up economies. Smallness, path dependency, and latecomer status of such economies create some inherent limitations for their innovation systems, but these special characteristics can offer advantages as well. For example, smallness is often related with increased flexibility and shorter reaction times, while latecomers can benefit from earlier experiences of their more advanced neighbors. Path-dependency highlights the fact that the innovation system development processes are considerably influenced by the past experience of a particular country or region. By incorporating these features into an integrated analysis, the authors address such questions as: * What special features characterize the innovation system development in small catching-up economies?* What are the causes for innovation success or failure? * How do organizational capabilities and internationalization tendencies relate to company level innovations? * What is the role of human capital and social factors in the innovation process? * How can various policies support innovation in an integrated manner? Drawing from research about Europe, Asia, and Latin America, the authors provide readers with a systemic view of the innovation system development in small catching-up economies. They discuss the unique features of this development and contribute to an in-depth understanding of various determinants and their impacts on the innovation process. The policy implications will offer a set of normative guidelines for enhancing innovation system development.",
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        "Innovation Systems in Small Catching-Up Economies ;Series Foreword;Preface;Contents;List of Figures;List of Tables;List of Appendices;Contributors;Part I: The General Context of Small and Path-Dependent National Innovation Systems ;Chapter 1: The Development of the Systemic Approach to Innovation;1.1 Introduction;1.2 The Historic Development of a Systemic Approach to Innovation;1.3 Theories Influencing the Systemic Approach and a Critique of the Approach;1.4 A Framework of System Failures;1.5 Conclusion;References;Chapter 2: The Characteristics of Small Country National Innovation Systems;2.1 Regional and Cultural Disparities in Small Countries;2.2 Knowledge and Innovative Growth in Small Economies;2.3 Small Enterprise Metaphor and System-Policy Interlinks;2.4 Organizational and Cost Issues in the Small Country Context;2.5 Some Sector-Specific Considerations and the Role of Human Capital;2.6 Networking, Clusters, and FDI in Small Country Innovation Systems;2.7 Problems in Policy Determination: The Example of Luxembourg;2.8 The General Features of Small-Scale Innovation Systems;2.9 Concluding Remarks;References;Chapter 3: Path Dependency Factors Affecting the Innovation Systems of Latecomer Countries: Comparison of Central and Eastern Europe, Asia, and Latin America;3.1 Introduction;3.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Coming Late;3.3 Path Dependency Constraints of Building National Innovation Systems in Latecomer Economies;3.4 Latecomer Status and Path Dependency Combined in the Industrial Policies of CEE, East Asian, and Latin American Countries;3.5 Building up Sustainable Learning Mechanisms in CEE, East Asian, and Latin American Countries;3.6 Domination of the Linear Approach to Innovation in CEE Countries;3.7 What Can CEE Countries Learn or Avoid from the Experience of Asian and Latin American Countries?;3.8 Conclusions and Discussion;References;Chapter 4: Knowledge Creation in Central and Eastern Europe: The Role of Sectoral Composition;4.1 Introduction;4.2 Data;4.3 The Role of Sectoral Decomposition in Aggregate R&D and Expenditure on Innovation;4.3.1 Methodology;4.3.2 Shift-Share Analysis of Expenditure on R 4.3.3 Shift-Share Analysis of Expenditure on Innovation;4.4 The Role of Sectoral Decomposition in Knowledge Production at the Firm Level;4.5 Summary; Appendix A Average Share of Expenditure on R&D and Innovation Across Industries, at Firm Level: 2004 (%); Appendix B Average Share of Expenditure on R&D Across West European Countries and Industries, at Firm Level: 2004 (%); Appendix C Average Share of Expenditure on R&D Across South and East European Countries and Industries, at Firm Level: 2004 (%);References;Chapter 5: Creativity and Learning in Innovation Processes;5.1 Introduction;5.2 The Origins of Connections Between Creativity and Innovation from the Angle of the General Environment;5.3 Individual Level: Creativity and Learning as the Gateway to Innovation;5.3.1 Expertise;5.3.2 Task Motivation;5.3.3 Creative Thinking Skills;5.4 Organizational Level: Assimilation of Influences;5.4.1 Managerial Practices;5.4.2 Resources;5.4.3 Organizational Culture;5.5 Discussion and Conclusions;References;Part II: The Contingency Approach to Success in Innovation Systems ;Chapter 6: Innovation Measurement Problems: An Illustrative Case of the Baltic Countries;6.1 Introduction;6.2 Literature Overview;6.3 Data and Methodology;6.4 Innovation Performance of the Baltic States;6.4.1 Enablers;6.4.2 Firm Activities;6.4.3 Outputs;6.5 Conclusion and Discussion;References;Chapter 7: Innovation and Firm Performance in the Services Sector in Estonia;7.1 Introduction;7.2 Data and Descriptive Statistics;7.3 Methodology;7.4 Results;7.4.1 Innovation Decision and Intensity;7.4.2 Knowledge Production Function;7.4.3 Productivity Equation;7.5 Conclusions;References;Chapter 8: Small States and Large Private Sector Investments in Infrastructure in Emerging Market Economies in Partnership with International Financial Institutions;8.1 Introduction;8.2 Public-Private Partnerships: Some Theoretical Considerations;8.3 Public-Private Partnership Build-Operate-Transfer projects for Infrastructure;8.4 International Financial Institutions, the Host Government and Risk Mitigation;8.5 The Nam Theun 2 Hydropower Project in the Lao PDR;8.6 International Financial Institutions and the Effectiveness of Their Risk Mitigation Instruments;8.7 Icelandic Energy Companies, Emerging Markets and the Need for Risk Mitigation;8.8 Conclusions;References;Chapter 9: The Capability-Related and Network-Related Causes for Innovation Failure and Success;9.1 Introduction;9.2 Literature Review;9.3 Methodology and Evidence from Estonia;9.4 Discussion and Managerial Implications;9.5 Conclusions;References;Part III: The Innovation Capabilities in a Small and Path-Dependent Innovation System ;Chapter 10: Transformation of Organizational Culture and the Effects on Innovative Activities: The Case of Estonian ICT Companies;10.1 Introduction;10.2 Organizational Culture;10.3 Innovation;10.4 Connections Between Organizational Culture and Innovation;10.4.1 Study of Estonian ICT Companies;10.4.1.1 Sample and Methodology;10.4.1.2 Findings on Organizational Culture;10.4.1.3 Findings on Innovation Activities;10.5 Conclusions; Appendix A Examples of the Interview Questions; A.1 Questions for Employees; A.2 Questions for Managers;References;Chapter 11: Investigating Cultural Influences on Innovation: A Comparison of Estonian and Danish Biotechnology Organizations;11.1 Introduction;11.2 Innovation;11.3 Organizational Culture and Innovation;11.4 Methods;11.4.1 The Empirical Context;11.4.2 Interview Guide;11.4.3 Data Collection and Coding;11.5 Findings and Discussion;11.5.1 Strategy (Mission, Vision, Values, Growth Orientation);11.5.2 Structure (Flexibility, Freedom, Autonomy, Group Interaction, Cooperation);11.5.3 Support Mechanisms (Reward, Recognition, Resources, Creative People);11.5.4 Behavior that Encourages Innovation (Continuous Learning Culture, Idea Generating, Risk Taking, Mistake and Conflict Handling);11.6 Conclusion and Implications; Appendix A Results for Interview Questions (Scale 1 - Unsupportive of Innovation to 7 - Supportive of Innovation); Appendix B Indices for Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance in Estonia and Denmark;References;Chapter 12: Innovation Capabilities in Small Catching-Up Economies: Evidence from Food Production and Tourism Sector SMEs;12.1 Introduction;12.2 Innovation Performance and Importance in SMEs in Small Catching-Up Countries;12.3 Innovation Capabilities as a Firm's Internal Resources;12.4 A Cross-Country Study of Innovation Capabilities in SMEs: Research Design, Methods, and Sample;12.5 Findings;12.6 Conclusions and Discussion; Appendix A Correlations Between Capacities, Competencies, Innovations, Turnover, and Profit of Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises;References;Chapter 13: Links Between Foreign Direct Investment and Innovation Activities in Estonia;13.1 Introduction;13.2 Econometric Method;13.3 Data Description and Preliminary Data Analysis;13.4 Matching Analysis of FDI Companies;13.5 Conclusions; Appendix A Definitions and Summary Statistics of Variables Used in Descriptive Tables and Regression Analysis;References;Part IV: The Relationships of Human and Social Factors with Innovation ;Chapter 14: The Role of Human and Social Capital for Innovation in Catching-Up Economies;14.1 Introduction;14.2 General Theoretical Background;14.3 The Context of Catching-Up Economies;14.4 Data and Measurement;14.5 Data Analysis;14.6 Discussion;14.7 Conclusions; Appendix A Initial Indicators Used in the Analysis; Appendix B Results of Factor Analysis; Appendix C Indicators of Innovative Activity, R&D, Human and Social Capital for European Countries (Standardized Values) and Their Population (Millions);References;Chapter 15: The Effect of Innovation on Skill Upgrading in Midtransition: Microeconometric Evidence from Estonia;15.1 Introduction;15.2 Methodology;15.3 Data;15.4 Empirical Estimation Results;15.4.1 Endogeneity;15.4.2 Interaction of Innovation with FDI and Export;15.5 Summary;References;Chapter 16: The Impact of Interfirm Labor Mobility on Innovation: Evidence from Job Search Portal Data;16.1 Introduction;16.2 Review of the Literature on Mobility and Innovation Links;16.3 Methods and Data;16.3.1 Data;16.3.2 Method;16.4 Empirical Analysis;16.5 Conclusion; Appendix A Overview of Selected Studies on the Links Between Labor Mobility and Firm Innovativeness; Appendix B Definitions and Summary Statistics of Variables Used in Descriptive Tables and Regression Analysis;References;Part V: The Innovation Policies in a Context of Small and Path-Dependent Country ;Chapter 17: Public Sector Inputs to the Innovativeness of the Country;17.1 Introduction;17.2 Main Public Sector Inputs to Innovativeness;17.3 The Methodology and Data;17.4 The Structure of Public Sector Inputs to Innovativeness and Their Impact on Business Sector Innovation Processes;17.5 Summary;References;Chapter 18: Policy Suggestions for Integrated Public Innovation Policies in a Small Country;18.1 Introduction;18.2 The Relationship Between Small Country Conditions and Innovation Measures;18.2.1 Stage of Development;18.2.2 Estonian Conditions for Innovation Policy in the Second Stage;18.2.3 Instruments of Public Innovation Policy;18.2.4 Problems of Effect Identification;18.3 The Prospect of Public Sector Innovation Policies;18.4 Conclusions;References;Chapter 19: Creating Innovation in the Education Sector: Policy Implications;19.1 Introduction;19.2 Innovation in the Education Sector: Introducing Ideas for Leadership Advancement, Shaping Organizational Culture, and Performance Management Principles;19.3 Sample;19.4 Method;19.5 Results;19.6 Implications;References;Index"
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            "In several parts of the world, countries are undergoing economic, social, and political transitions, enhanced and accelerated by the forces of globalization. These transition economies can serve as laboratories for understanding the innovation process. This volume features original theoretical and empirical research. It offers the first comprehensive view of innovation system development in the context of small catching-up economies. Smallness, path dependency, and latecomer status of such economies create some inherent limitations for their innovation systems, but these special characteristics can offer advantages as well. For example, smallness is often related with increased flexibility and shorter reaction times, while latecomers can benefit from earlier experiences of their more advanced neighbors. Path-dependency highlights the fact that the innovation system development processes are considerably influenced by the past experience of a particular country or region. By incorporating these features into an integrated analysis, the authors address such questions as: * What special features characterize the innovation system development in small catching-up economies?* What are the causes for innovation success or failure? * How do organizational capabilities and internationalization tendencies relate to company level innovations? * What is the role of human capital and social factors in the innovation process? * How can various policies support innovation in an integrated manner? Drawing from research about Europe, Asia, and Latin America, the authors provide readers with a systemic view of the innovation system development in small catching-up economies. They discuss the unique features of this development and contribute to an in-depth understanding of various determinants and their impacts on the innovation process. The policy implications will offer a set of normative guidelines for enhancing innovation system development.",
            "This is a comprehensive view of innovation system development in small catching-up economies. The authors describe the limitations as well as the advantages, and outline a set of normative guidelines for enhancing innovation system development."
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            "Varblane, Urmas",
            "Carayannis, Elias G"
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            "Osteuropa",
            "Kleinstaat",
            "Technologiepolitik",
            "Innovation",
            "Baltische Staaten",
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            "Knowledge management",
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          "Abstract":[
            "In several parts of the world, countries are undergoing economic, social, and political transitions, enhanced and accelerated by the forces of globalization. These transition economies can serve as laboratories for understanding the innovation process. This volume features original theoretical and empirical research. It offers the first comprehensive view of innovation system development in the context of small catching-up economies. Smallness, path dependency, and latecomer status of such economies create some inherent limitations for their innovation systems, but these special characteristics can offer advantages as well. For example, smallness is often related with increased flexibility and shorter reaction times, while latecomers can benefit from earlier experiences of their more advanced neighbors. Path-dependency highlights the fact that the innovation system development processes are considerably influenced by the past experience of a particular country or region. By incorporating these features into an integrated analysis, the authors address such questions as: * What special features characterize the innovation system development in small catching-up economies?* What are the causes for innovation success or failure? * How do organizational capabilities and internationalization tendencies relate to company level innovations? * What is the role of human capital and social factors in the innovation process? * How can various policies support innovation in an integrated manner? Drawing from research about Europe, Asia, and Latin America, the authors provide readers with a systemic view of the innovation system development in small catching-up economies. They discuss the unique features of this development and contribute to an in-depth understanding of various determinants and their impacts on the innovation process. The policy implications will offer a set of normative guidelines for enhancing innovation system development."
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            "2012"
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          "TableOfContents":[
            "Innovation Systems in Small Catching-Up Economies ;Series Foreword;Preface;Contents;List of Figures;List of Tables;List of Appendices;Contributors;Part I: The General Context of Small and Path-Dependent National Innovation Systems ;Chapter 1: The Development of the Systemic Approach to Innovation;1.1 Introduction;1.2 The Historic Development of a Systemic Approach to Innovation;1.3 Theories Influencing the Systemic Approach and a Critique of the Approach;1.4 A Framework of System Failures;1.5 Conclusion;References;Chapter 2: The Characteristics of Small Country National Innovation Systems;2.1 Regional and Cultural Disparities in Small Countries;2.2 Knowledge and Innovative Growth in Small Economies;2.3 Small Enterprise Metaphor and System-Policy Interlinks;2.4 Organizational and Cost Issues in the Small Country Context;2.5 Some Sector-Specific Considerations and the Role of Human Capital;2.6 Networking, Clusters, and FDI in Small Country Innovation Systems;2.7 Problems in Policy Determination: The Example of Luxembourg;2.8 The General Features of Small-Scale Innovation Systems;2.9 Concluding Remarks;References;Chapter 3: Path Dependency Factors Affecting the Innovation Systems of Latecomer Countries: Comparison of Central and Eastern Europe, Asia, and Latin America;3.1 Introduction;3.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Coming Late;3.3 Path Dependency Constraints of Building National Innovation Systems in Latecomer Economies;3.4 Latecomer Status and Path Dependency Combined in the Industrial Policies of CEE, East Asian, and Latin American Countries;3.5 Building up Sustainable Learning Mechanisms in CEE, East Asian, and Latin American Countries;3.6 Domination of the Linear Approach to Innovation in CEE Countries;3.7 What Can CEE Countries Learn or Avoid from the Experience of Asian and Latin American Countries?;3.8 Conclusions and Discussion;References;Chapter 4: Knowledge Creation in Central and Eastern Europe: The Role of Sectoral Composition;4.1 Introduction;4.2 Data;4.3 The Role of Sectoral Decomposition in Aggregate R&D and Expenditure on Innovation;4.3.1 Methodology;4.3.2 Shift-Share Analysis of Expenditure on R 4.3.3 Shift-Share Analysis of Expenditure on Innovation;4.4 The Role of Sectoral Decomposition in Knowledge Production at the Firm Level;4.5 Summary; Appendix A Average Share of Expenditure on R&D and Innovation Across Industries, at Firm Level: 2004 (%); Appendix B Average Share of Expenditure on R&D Across West European Countries and Industries, at Firm Level: 2004 (%); Appendix C Average Share of Expenditure on R&D Across South and East European Countries and Industries, at Firm Level: 2004 (%);References;Chapter 5: Creativity and Learning in Innovation Processes;5.1 Introduction;5.2 The Origins of Connections Between Creativity and Innovation from the Angle of the General Environment;5.3 Individual Level: Creativity and Learning as the Gateway to Innovation;5.3.1 Expertise;5.3.2 Task Motivation;5.3.3 Creative Thinking Skills;5.4 Organizational Level: Assimilation of Influences;5.4.1 Managerial Practices;5.4.2 Resources;5.4.3 Organizational Culture;5.5 Discussion and Conclusions;References;Part II: The Contingency Approach to Success in Innovation Systems ;Chapter 6: Innovation Measurement Problems: An Illustrative Case of the Baltic Countries;6.1 Introduction;6.2 Literature Overview;6.3 Data and Methodology;6.4 Innovation Performance of the Baltic States;6.4.1 Enablers;6.4.2 Firm Activities;6.4.3 Outputs;6.5 Conclusion and Discussion;References;Chapter 7: Innovation and Firm Performance in the Services Sector in Estonia;7.1 Introduction;7.2 Data and Descriptive Statistics;7.3 Methodology;7.4 Results;7.4.1 Innovation Decision and Intensity;7.4.2 Knowledge Production Function;7.4.3 Productivity Equation;7.5 Conclusions;References;Chapter 8: Small States and Large Private Sector Investments in Infrastructure in Emerging Market Economies in Partnership with International Financial Institutions;8.1 Introduction;8.2 Public-Private Partnerships: Some Theoretical Considerations;8.3 Public-Private Partnership Build-Operate-Transfer projects for Infrastructure;8.4 International Financial Institutions, the Host Government and Risk Mitigation;8.5 The Nam Theun 2 Hydropower Project in the Lao PDR;8.6 International Financial Institutions and the Effectiveness of Their Risk Mitigation Instruments;8.7 Icelandic Energy Companies, Emerging Markets and the Need for Risk Mitigation;8.8 Conclusions;References;Chapter 9: The Capability-Related and Network-Related Causes for Innovation Failure and Success;9.1 Introduction;9.2 Literature Review;9.3 Methodology and Evidence from Estonia;9.4 Discussion and Managerial Implications;9.5 Conclusions;References;Part III: The Innovation Capabilities in a Small and Path-Dependent Innovation System ;Chapter 10: Transformation of Organizational Culture and the Effects on Innovative Activities: The Case of Estonian ICT Companies;10.1 Introduction;10.2 Organizational Culture;10.3 Innovation;10.4 Connections Between Organizational Culture and Innovation;10.4.1 Study of Estonian ICT Companies;10.4.1.1 Sample and Methodology;10.4.1.2 Findings on Organizational Culture;10.4.1.3 Findings on Innovation Activities;10.5 Conclusions; Appendix A Examples of the Interview Questions; A.1 Questions for Employees; A.2 Questions for Managers;References;Chapter 11: Investigating Cultural Influences on Innovation: A Comparison of Estonian and Danish Biotechnology Organizations;11.1 Introduction;11.2 Innovation;11.3 Organizational Culture and Innovation;11.4 Methods;11.4.1 The Empirical Context;11.4.2 Interview Guide;11.4.3 Data Collection and Coding;11.5 Findings and Discussion;11.5.1 Strategy (Mission, Vision, Values, Growth Orientation);11.5.2 Structure (Flexibility, Freedom, Autonomy, Group Interaction, Cooperation);11.5.3 Support Mechanisms (Reward, Recognition, Resources, Creative People);11.5.4 Behavior that Encourages Innovation (Continuous Learning Culture, Idea Generating, Risk Taking, Mistake and Conflict Handling);11.6 Conclusion and Implications; Appendix A Results for Interview Questions (Scale 1 - Unsupportive of Innovation to 7 - Supportive of Innovation); Appendix B Indices for Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance in Estonia and Denmark;References;Chapter 12: Innovation Capabilities in Small Catching-Up Economies: Evidence from Food Production and Tourism Sector SMEs;12.1 Introduction;12.2 Innovation Performance and Importance in SMEs in Small Catching-Up Countries;12.3 Innovation Capabilities as a Firm's Internal Resources;12.4 A Cross-Country Study of Innovation Capabilities in SMEs: Research Design, Methods, and Sample;12.5 Findings;12.6 Conclusions and Discussion; Appendix A Correlations Between Capacities, Competencies, Innovations, Turnover, and Profit of Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises;References;Chapter 13: Links Between Foreign Direct Investment and Innovation Activities in Estonia;13.1 Introduction;13.2 Econometric Method;13.3 Data Description and Preliminary Data Analysis;13.4 Matching Analysis of FDI Companies;13.5 Conclusions; Appendix A Definitions and Summary Statistics of Variables Used in Descriptive Tables and Regression Analysis;References;Part IV: The Relationships of Human and Social Factors with Innovation ;Chapter 14: The Role of Human and Social Capital for Innovation in Catching-Up Economies;14.1 Introduction;14.2 General Theoretical Background;14.3 The Context of Catching-Up Economies;14.4 Data and Measurement;14.5 Data Analysis;14.6 Discussion;14.7 Conclusions; Appendix A Initial Indicators Used in the Analysis; Appendix B Results of Factor Analysis; Appendix C Indicators of Innovative Activity, R&D, Human and Social Capital for European Countries (Standardized Values) and Their Population (Millions);References;Chapter 15: The Effect of Innovation on Skill Upgrading in Midtransition: Microeconometric Evidence from Estonia;15.1 Introduction;15.2 Methodology;15.3 Data;15.4 Empirical Estimation Results;15.4.1 Endogeneity;15.4.2 Interaction of Innovation with FDI and Export;15.5 Summary;References;Chapter 16: The Impact of Interfirm Labor Mobility on Innovation: Evidence from Job Search Portal Data;16.1 Introduction;16.2 Review of the Literature on Mobility and Innovation Links;16.3 Methods and Data;16.3.1 Data;16.3.2 Method;16.4 Empirical Analysis;16.5 Conclusion; Appendix A Overview of Selected Studies on the Links Between Labor Mobility and Firm Innovativeness; Appendix B Definitions and Summary Statistics of Variables Used in Descriptive Tables and Regression Analysis;References;Part V: The Innovation Policies in a Context of Small and Path-Dependent Country ;Chapter 17: Public Sector Inputs to the Innovativeness of the Country;17.1 Introduction;17.2 Main Public Sector Inputs to Innovativeness;17.3 The Methodology and Data;17.4 The Structure of Public Sector Inputs to Innovativeness and Their Impact on Business Sector Innovation Processes;17.5 Summary;References;Chapter 18: Policy Suggestions for Integrated Public Innovation Policies in a Small Country;18.1 Introduction;18.2 The Relationship Between Small Country Conditions and Innovation Measures;18.2.1 Stage of Development;18.2.2 Estonian Conditions for Innovation Policy in the Second Stage;18.2.3 Instruments of Public Innovation Policy;18.2.4 Problems of Effect Identification;18.3 The Prospect of Public Sector Innovation Policies;18.4 Conclusions;References;Chapter 19: Creating Innovation in the Education Sector: Policy Implications;19.1 Introduction;19.2 Innovation in the Education Sector: Introducing Ideas for Leadership Advancement, Shaping Organizational Culture, and Performance Management Principles;19.3 Sample;19.4 Method;19.5 Results;19.6 Implications;References;Index"
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        "This dissertation is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters in Procurement and Supply Management, 2016. Cataloged from PDF version of thesis report. Includes bibliographical references (page 34-35). The planning ministry is taking a timely initiative for all government purchases to be done under the electronic government procurement (EGP) process. Tenders on paper have not only given ample scope to corruption and irregularities, but has caused serious clashes too. Bidders are harassed while submitting the tender documents. Some can’t even submit their documents due to threats from criminal quarters. Vested quarters backing these criminals are in control of the procurement process. The taxpayers and the service seekers are the ones who suffer the most. In order to resolve these problems, in 2011 the government introduced the EGP system for procurement in the local government engineering department, Roads and highways department, Water Development board and the Rural Electricity board. The e-GP is a single web portal from where and through which public procurement agencies and entities will be able to conduct their procurement related activities with transparency and accountability. For their part, the bidders and tender applicants will not only save time but also have a level playing field. Electronic government procurement (e-GP) is a modern and integrated online system for procurement of goods, works and services with public funds. The government deserves appreciation for digitizing public procurement that involves about TK 780 billion development budget every year. This research looks into e-GP system through the lens of Public Works Department (PWD). There are many facts which are either hindering or helping the e-GP process in PWD. Respondents were asked about their experience so far and several interesting factors came though interviewing them. Respondents descried what they think has helped them to forward through the e-GP process till such, namely Lesson learnt from other department, Bitter experience of the manual system and Support from the strategic level of the Government. Various Blockers to impletion for e-GP was identified such as Lack of training and Understanding about the system, inadequate capability of CPTU server, Untrained Contractors and incapability of e-GP system to encompass all stakeholder in the Purchase to Pay (P2P) cycle. Respondent then recommended various steps that they think should be implemented for the future performance of e-GP. Innovative and Interactive training of the stakeholders were recommended by most of them. This training can be both offline and online type. Some even suggest that current interface of website can be made more user friendly, so that beginner can fell easy to use. If all the recommendations are implemented, that day is not far when e-GP system will achieve 100 % coverage in all the government purchase. Jubair Bin Haider M. Procurement and Supply Management"
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