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Facet Value Group Filter Parameter

Syntax

The facet value group filter parameter uses the following syntax:

s.fvgf=<facetField>, <combineMode>, <value>[, <value>]*

A query string may contain many s.fvgf parameters. There are no defaults for the s.fvgf parameter.

Function

The facet value group filter parameter is an advanced feature that applies filters for groups of facet values with an arbitrary combine mode. This parameter should be used by applying values returned in a facet field only from a previous query.

Example - Using the facet value group filter parameter

This query string applies a facet value group filter for SubjectTerms "north america" OR "u.s":

s.fvgf=SubjectTerms,or,northern+america,u.s

Example response

s.fvgf=SubjectTerms,or,northern+america,u.s

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        "The variance of federal funds rates on nonsettling days was relatively low during the nonborrowed reserve period. As an explanation, we develop a model where banks maximize expected profits over the reserve maintenance period subject to transaction costs on the settling day (for simplicity, fixed costs) and a probability distribution of stochastic reserve flows. The equilibrium solution reveals the relation between the microeconomic parameters--settling-day transaction costs and the reserve flow variance--and the variance of nonsettling-day rates. Casual evidence suggest that regulatory innovations may have altered the reserve flow variance to produce the observed degree of interest rate smoothness."
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          "volume":"13",
          "start-page":"87",
          "year":"Jan. 1984",
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          "article-title":"Short-run monetary control: Evidence under a non-borrowed reserve operating procedure",
          "publication-title":"Journal of Monetary Economics",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Lindsey"
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          "article-title":"Commercial bank management in a stochastic model: Implications for monetary policy",
          "publication-title":"Journal of Finance",
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            "fullname":"Poole"
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          "start-page":"401",
          "year":"Dec. 1988",
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          "article-title":"The micromechanics of the federal funds market: Implications for day-of-the-week effects in funds rate variability",
          "publication-title":"Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Spindt"
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          "start-page":"249",
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          "end-page":"265",
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          "article-title":"Changes in the financial system: Implications for monetary policy",
          "publication-title":"Brookings Papers on Economic Activity",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Simpson"
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        },
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          "year":"Sept. 1990",
          "ident":"BIB1",
          "article-title":"Arriving at the window: An analysis of the slowdown in the number of adjustment credit borrowers",
          "publication-title":"Federal Reserve Bulletin",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Clouse"
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          "year":"1983",
          "ident":"BIB8",
          "article-title":"The Money Market",
          "contributor":{
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          "year":"July/Aug. 1971",
          "end-page":"825",
          "ident":"BIB2",
          "article-title":"Banks' demand for excess reserves",
          "publication-title":"Journal of Political Economy",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Frost"
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        },
        {
          "volume":"12",
          "start-page":"523",
          "year":"Dec. 1988",
          "end-page":"535",
          "ident":"BIB5",
          "article-title":"The effects of shifts in monetary policy and reserve accounting regimes on bank reserve management behavior in the federal funds market",
          "publication-title":"Journal of Banking and Finance",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Saunders"
          },
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Urich"
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        {
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          "ident":"10.1016/0148-6195(93)90019-K_BIB1_2"
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          "volume":"23",
          "start-page":"769",
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          "ident":"10.1016/0148-6195(93)90019-K_BIB4",
          "article-title":"Commercial bank management in a stochastic model: Implications for monetary policy",
          "publication-title":"Journal of Finance",
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            "fullname":"Poole"
          }
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          "start-page":"523",
          "year":"1988",
          "ident":"10.1016/0148-6195(93)90019-K_BIB5",
          "article-title":"The effects of shifts in monetary policy and reserve accounting regimes on bank reserve management behavior in the federal funds market",
          "publication-title":"Journal of Banking and Finance",
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          "ident":"10.1016/0148-6195(93)90019-K_BIB1_1",
          "article-title":"Arriving at the window: An analysis of the slowdown in the number of adjustment credit borrowers",
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          "ident":"10.1016/0148-6195(93)90019-K_BIB3",
          "article-title":"Short-run monetary control: Evidence under a non-borrowed reserve operating procedure",
          "publication-title":"Journal of Monetary Economics",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Lindsey"
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          "volume":"23",
          "start-page":"401",
          "year":"1988",
          "ident":"10.1016/0148-6195(93)90019-K_BIB7",
          "article-title":"The micromechanics of the federal funds market: Implications for day-of-the-week effects in funds rate variability",
          "publication-title":"Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis",
          "contributor":{
            "fullname":"Spindt"
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          "ident":"10.1016/0148-6195(93)90019-K_BIB8",
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        {
          "start-page":"249",
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          "ident":"10.1016/0148-6195(93)90019-K_BIB6",
          "article-title":"Changes in the financial system: Implications for monetary policy",
          "publication-title":"Brookings Papers on Economic Activity",
          "contributor":{
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          "article-title":"Banks' demand for excess reserves",
          "publication-title":"Journal of Political Economy",
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        "The variance of federal funds rates on nonsettling days was relatively low during the nonborrowed reserve period. As an explanation, we develop a model where..."
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        "The variance of federal funds rates on nonsettling days was relatively low during the nonborrowed reserve period. As an explanation, we develop a model where banks maximize expected profits over the reserve maintenance period subject to transaction costs on the settling day (for simplicity, fixed costs) and a probability distribution of stochastic reserve flows. The equilibrium solution reveals the relation between the microeconomic parameters--settling-day transaction costs and the reserve flow variance--and the variance of nonsettling-day rates. Casual evidence suggest that regulatory innovations may have altered the reserve flow variance to produce the observed degree of interest rate smoothness."
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        "Practitioners and scholars are concerned that citizen surveys about community services are heavily influenced by respondents' opinions on other issues and by their sociodemographic backgrounds. We search for these biases by examining the extent to which citizen assessments of streets and parks in Iowa communities match the assessments of a nonresident. The citizens' ratings correlate significantly with the nonresident's ratings, indicating that citizen evaluations are not entirely the product of other influences. However, further analysis reveals some bias. In particular, streets are rated higher in wealthy towns, towns high in political efficacy, and towns where residents rate government services good overall. Parks are rated higher in towns where people come together to solve problems and in towns where people rate government services good overall. Even with these biases, our research indicates that citizen evaluations convey reasonably accurate information about the condition of community streets and parks.",
        "Practitioners and scholars are concerned that citizen surveys about community services are heavily influenced by respondents' opinions on other issues and by their sociodemographic backgrounds. We search for these biases by examining the extent to which citizen assessments of streets and parks in Iowa communities match the assessments of a nonresident. The citizens' ratings correlate significantly with the nonresident's ratings, indicating that citizen evaluations are not entirely the product of other influences. However, further analysis reveals some bias. In particular, streets are rated higher in wealthy towns, towns high in political efficacy, and towns where residents rate government services good overall. Parks are rated higher in towns where people come together to solve problems and in towns where people rate government services good overall. Even with these biases, our research indicates that citizen evaluations convey reasonably accurate information about the condition of community streets and parks.",
        "Practitioners and scholars are concerned that citizen surveys about community services are heavily influenced by respondents' opinions on other issues and by their sociodemographic backgrounds. We search for these biases by examining the extent to which citizen assessments of streets and parks in Iowa communities match the assessments of a nonresident. The citizens' ratings correlate significantly with the nonresident's ratings, indicating that citizen evaluations are not entirely the product of other influences. However, further analysis reveals some bias. In particular, streets are rated higher in wealthy towns, towns high in political efficacy, and towns where residents rate government services good overall. Parks are rated higher in towns where people come together to solve problems and in towns where people rate government services good overall. Even with these biases, our research indicates that citizen evaluations convey reasonably accurate information about the condition of community streets and parks.",
        "Practitioners and scholars are concerned that citizen surveys about community services are heavily influenced by respondents' opinions on other issues and by their sociodemographic backgrounds. We search for these biases by examining the extent to which citizen assessments of streets and parks in Iowa communities match the assessments of a nonresident. The citizens' ratings correlate significantly with the nonresident's ratings, indicating that citizen evaluations are not entirely the product of other influences. However, further analysis reveals some bias. In particular, streets are rated higher in wealthy towns, towns high in political efficacy, and towns where residents rate government services good overall. Parks are rated higher in towns where people come together to solve problems and in towns where people rate government services good overall. Even with these biases, our research indicates that citizen evaluations convey reasonably accurate information about the condition of community streets and parks. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]"
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        "Practitioners and scholars are concerned that citizen surveys about community services are heavily influenced by respondents' opinions on other issues and by..."
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          "article-title":"Linking Citizen Satisfaction Data to Performance Measures: A Preliminary Evaluation",
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          "article-title":"The Use of Surveys of Satisfaction for Evaluations",
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          "article-title":"Some Dynamics of Urban Service Evaluations among Blacks and Whites",
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          "article-title":"Performance Assessment in Municipal Government",
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          "article-title":"Attitudes and Belief Systems Concerning Urban Services",
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          "article-title":"Citizen Evaluations and Urban Management: Service Delivery in an Era of Protest",
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          "article-title":"Urban Policy Making and Subjective Service Evaluations: Are They Compatible",
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          "article-title":"Local Roots in Black Alienation",
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          "article-title":"Citizen Satisfaction with Urban Services: Potential Misuse as a Performance Indicator",
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          "article-title":"In Defense of Citizen Evaluations as Performance Measures",
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        {
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          "issue":"9",
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      "AuthorAffiliation":[
        "University of Northern Iowa",
        "Arkansas State University",
        "University of Iowa"
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        "Citizen Satisfaction",
        "Valuation of Environmental Effects (Q51)",
        "U.S",
        "Northern America",
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        "1998; 8",
        "1986; 22",
        "1985; 20",
        "1976; 56",
        "1977; 41",
        "1980; 40",
        "2003; 33",
        "1981; 25",
        "1981; 9",
        "1972",
        "1992",
        "2002b; 62",
        "1999; 15",
        "1974",
        "1977",
        "1984; 44",
        "2000; 24",
        "1999; 59",
        "1974; 54",
        "1979; 39",
        "1983; 42",
        "1982; 42",
        "1984; 19",
        "1982",
        "1971; 10",
        "2002a; 24",
        "Durand Robert (b4_180) 1976; 56",
        "McDougall Gerald (b13_189) 1984; 19",
        "Rosentraub Mark S. (b18_194) 1981; 9",
        "Stipak Brian (b23_199) 1979; 39",
        "Willbern Y. (b25_201) 1971; 10",
        "Hicks D.A. (b8_184) 1982",
        "Percy Stephen L. (b16_192) 1986; 22",
        "b10_186",
        "Garsombke H. Perrin (b6_182) 1999; 15",
        "Fitzgerald Michael (b5_181) 1980; 40",
        "Brown Karin (b2_178) 1983; 42",
        "Lyons William E. (b12_188) 1992",
        "b9_185",
        "Brudney Jeffrey L. (b3_179) 1982; 42",
        "Schuman Howard (b20_196) 1972",
        "Williams J. T. (b26_202) 1977",
        "b11_187",
        "Parks Roger B. (b15_191) 1984; 44",
        "Rossi Peter (b19_195) 1974; 54",
        "Stipak Brian (b21_197) 1974",
        "Besser Terry L. (b1_177) 1998; 8",
        "Poister Theodore H. (b17_193) 1999; 59",
        "Swindell David (b24_200) 2000; 24",
        "Mladenka Kenneth R. (b14_190) 1981; 25",
        "b22_198",
        "Hero Rodney E. (b7_183) 1985; 20"
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          "fullname":"William McLean"
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        {
          "sequence":"3",
          "fullname":"Tom W. Rice"
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      "Abstract":[
        "Practitioners and scholars are concerned that citizen surveys about community services are heavily influenced by respondents' opinions on other issues and by their sociodemographic backgrounds. We search for these biases by examining the extent to which citizen assessments of streets and parks in Iowa communities match the assessments of a nonresident. The citizens' ratings correlate significantly with the nonresident's ratings, indicating that citizen evaluations are not entirely the product of other influences. However, further analysis reveals some bias. In particular, streets are rated higher in wealthy towns, towns high in political efficacy, and towns where residents rate government services good overall. Parks are rated higher in towns where people come together to solve problems and in towns where people rate government services good overall. Even with these biases, our research indicates that citizen evaluations convey reasonably accurate information about the condition of community streets and parks."
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      "Title":[
        "The Condition of Community Streets and Parks: A Comparison of Resident and Nonresident Evaluations"
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        "This paper explores how the costs of meeting given aggregate targets for pollution emissions change with the imposition of the requirement that key pollution-related industries be compensated for potential losses of profit from the pollution regulation. We apply a numerically solved general equilibrium model to compare the incidence and costs of emissions taxes, fuel (intermediate input) taxes, performance standards and mandated technologies in the absence and presence of this compensation requirement. Compensation is provided either through industry tax credits or industry-specific cuts in capital tax rates. We analyze the added costs from the compensation requirement in terms of (1) an increase in \"intrinsic abatement cost,\" reflecting a lowered efficiency of pollution abatement, and (2) a \"lump-sum compensation cost\" that captures the efficiency costs of financing the compensation. The compensation requirement affects these components differently, depending on the policy instrument involved and the required extent of pollution abatement. As a result, it can change the cost rankings of the different instruments. In particular, when compensation is provided through lump-sum tax credits, the lump-sum compensation cost is higher under the emissions tax than under the command-and-control policies (performance standards and mandated technologies) a reflection of the higher compensation requirements under the emissions tax. When the required pollution reduction is modest, imposing the compensation requirement causes the emissions tax to lose its status as the least costly instrument and to become more costly than command-and-control policies. In contrast, when required abatement is extensive, the emissions tax again becomes the most cost-effective instrument because of its advantages in terms of lower intrinsic abatement cost.",
        "This paper explores how the costs of meeting given aggregate targets for pollution emissions change with the imposition of the requirement that key pollution-related industries be compensated for potential losses of profit from the pollution regulation. We apply a numerically solved general equilibrium model to compare the incidence and costs of emissions taxes, fuel (intermediate input) taxes, performance standards and mandated technologies in the absence and presence of this compensation requirement. Compensation is provided either through industry tax credits or industry-specific cuts in capital tax rates. We analyze the added costs from the compensation requirement in terms of (1) an increase in \"intrinsic abatement cost,\" reflecting a lowered efficiency of pollution abatement, and (2) a \"lump-sum compensation cost\" that captures the efficiency costs of financing the compensation. The compensation requirement affects these components differently, depending on the policy instrument involved and the required extent of pollution abatement. As a result, it can change the cost rankings of the different instruments. In particular, when compensation is provided through lump-sum tax credits, the lump-sum compensation cost is higher under the emissions tax than under the command-and-control policies (performance standards and mandated technologies)--a reflection of the higher compensation requirements under the emissions tax. When the required pollution reduction is modest, imposing the compensation requirement causes the emissions tax to lose its status as the least costly instrument and to become more costly than command-and-control policies. In contrast, when required abatement is extensive, the emissions tax again becomes the most cost-effective instrument because of its advantages in terms of lower intrinsic abatement cost.",
        "This paper explores how the costs of meeting given aggregate targets for pollution emissions change with the imposition of the requirement that key pollution-related industries be compensated for potential losses of profit from the pollution regulation. We apply a numerically solved general equilibrium model to compare the incidence and costs of emissions taxes, fuel (intermediate input) taxes, performance standards and mandated technologies in the absence and presence of this compensation requirement. Compensation is provided either through industry tax credits or industry-specific cuts in capital tax rates."
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        "English"
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        "1879-2316"
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      "Author":[
        "Bovenberg, A. Lans",
        "Goulder, Lawrence H",
        "Jacobsen, Mark R"
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        "0047-2727"
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        "2000"
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        "This paper explores how the costs of meeting given aggregate targets for pollution emissions change with the imposition of the requirement that key..."
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      "SubjectTerms":[
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        "Compensation requirements",
        "Pollution control",
        "Environmental instrument choice",
        "Environmental Economics: Government Policy (Q58)",
        "Taxes",
        "Northern America",
        "Taxation and Subsidies: Externalities, Redistributive Effects, Environmental Taxes and Subsidies (H23)",
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      "References":[
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        "Tietenberg (bib21) 1990; 6",
        "Fuchs, Krueger, Poterba (bib10) 1998; 36",
        "Bovenberg, Goulder (bib2) 2001",
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        "Jorgenson, Wilcoxen (bib14) 1993; 15",
        "Jorgenson, Wilcoxen (bib15) 1993; vol. 18",
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        "Fischer (10.1016/j.jpubeco.2007.09.013_bib9) 2003; 45",
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        "Jorgenson (10.1016/j.jpubeco.2007.09.013_bib14) 1993; 15",
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      "Abstract":[
        "This paper explores how the costs of meeting given aggregate targets for pollution emissions change with the imposition of the requirement that key pollution-related industries be compensated for potential losses of profit from the pollution regulation. We apply a numerically solved general equilibrium model to compare the incidence and costs of emissions taxes, fuel (intermediate input) taxes, performance standards and mandated technologies in the absence and presence of this compensation requirement. Compensation is provided either through industry tax credits or industry-specific cuts in capital tax rates. We analyze the added costs from the compensation requirement in terms of (1) an increase in \"intrinsic abatement cost,\" reflecting a lowered efficiency of pollution abatement, and (2) a \"lump-sum compensation cost\" that captures the efficiency costs of financing the compensation. The compensation requirement affects these components differently, depending on the policy instrument involved and the required extent of pollution abatement. As a result, it can change the cost rankings of the different instruments. In particular, when compensation is provided through lump-sum tax credits, the lump-sum compensation cost is higher under the emissions tax than under the command-and-control policies (performance standards and mandated technologies)--a reflection of the higher compensation requirements under the emissions tax. When the required pollution reduction is modest, imposing the compensation requirement causes the emissions tax to lose its status as the least costly instrument and to become more costly than command-and-control policies. In contrast, when required abatement is extensive, the emissions tax again becomes the most cost-effective instrument because of its advantages in terms of lower intrinsic abatement cost."
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        "Costs of alternative environmental policy instruments in the presence of industry compensation requirements"
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